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Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

0-9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  


A
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Acronym - AaaS
Application as a Service

Acronym - EDI
Electronic Data Interchange

Acronym - HaaS
Hardware as a Service

Acronym - NPI
National Provider Identification

Acronym - PaaS
Platform as a Service

Acronym - PHI
Protective Health Information

ASA - anyconnect-essentials
Enables the AnyConnect Essentials feature. If this feature is disabled (using the no form of this command), the full AnyConnect VPN client is used. This feature is enabled by default.

ASA - clear local-host command
If you change the access list configuration, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new access list information is used

ASA - clear xlate [arguments]
This command clears dynamic NAT sessions; static sessions are not affected. As a result, it removes any connections using those NAT sessions. With no arguments, this command clears all NAT sessions. See the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Command Reference for more information about the arguments available.

ASA - copy flash:old_running.cfg startup-config
To copy the backup version of your original running configuration to the current startup configuration

ASA - show perfmon
shows performance statistics continuously at defined intervals.

ASA - show running-config aaa
Displays the AAA configuration

ASA - Show Usage Commands
show resource usage system counter all 0 Show resource usage detail show resource usage summary show resource usage context

ASA Licensing - activation-key key
hostname# activation-key 0xd11b3d48 0xa80a4c0a 0x48e0fd1c 0xb0443480 0x843fc490

ASA Licensing - Obtaining an Activation Key
Obtain the serial number for your adaptive security appliance by entering the following command. hostname# show activation-key Access one of the following URLs. Use the following website if you are a registered user of Cisco.com: http://www.cisco.com/go/license Use the following website if you are not a registered user of Cisco.com: http://www.cisco.com/go/license/public Step 3 Enter the following information, when prompted: Product Authorization Key (if you have multiple keys, enter one of the keys first. You have to enter each key as a separate process.) The serial number of your adaptive security appliance Your email address Step 4 An activation key is automatically generated and sent to the email address that you provide. This key includes all features you have registered so far for permanent licenses. For VPN Flex licenses, each license has a separate activation key. If you have additional Product Authorization Keys, repeat Step 3 for each Product Authorization Key. After you enter all of the Product Authorization Keys, the final activation key provided includes all of the permanent features you registered.

ASA Licensing - show activation-key detail
Shows the installed licenses, including information about temporary licenses.

ASA Modes - firewall transparent
Sets the firewall mode to transparent. Enter this command in the system execution space for multiple context mode. To change the mode to routed, enter the no firewall transparent command.

ASA Modes - show firewall
Gives the mode the firewall is currently in

ASA VPN - crypto isakmp am-disable
To disable ISAKMP in aggressive mode, enter the following command

ASA-Show - Filtering Syntax
show command | {include | exclude | begin | grep [-v]} regexp

Asynchronous
(meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time") Is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time. In information technology, the term has several different usages. 1) In telecommunication signaling within a network or between networks, an asynchronous signal is one that is transmitted at a different clock rate than another signal. (plesiochronous signals are almost but not quite in synchronization - and a method is used to adjust them - and synchronous signals are those that run at the same clock rate. 2) In computer programs, asynchronous operation means that a process operates independently of other processes, whereas synchronous operation means that the process runs only as a result of some other process being completed or handing off operation. A typical activity that might use a synchronous protocol would be a transmission of files from one point to another. As each transmission is received, a response is returned indicating success or the need to resend. Each successive transmission of data requires a response to the previous transmission before a new one can be initiated.

D
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DDNS
DDNS update integrates DNS with DHCP. The two protocols are complementary: DHCP centralizes and automates IP address allocation; DDNS update automatically records the association between assigned addresses and hostnames at pre-defined intervals. DDNS allows frequently changing address-hostname associations to be updated frequently.

Dubai - Burj Residences Description
Burj Residences 2, T1 - Unit 3204 which is 1 bedroom of 846 Sq. Ft.

I
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Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPsec

S
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Synchronous
(meaning "with," and chronos, meaning "time") Is an adjective describing objects or events that are coordinated in time. In information technology, the term has several different usages. 1) In telecommunication signaling within a network or between networks, synchronous signals are those that occur at the same clock rate when all clocks are based on a single reference clock. (plesiochronous signals are almost but not quite in synchronization and asynchronous signals are those that run from different clocks or at a different transition rate.) 2) In program-to-program communication, synchronous communication requires that each end of an exchange of communication respond in turn without initiating a new communication. A typical activity that might use a synchronous protocol would be a transmission of files from one point to another. As each transmission is received, a response is returned indicating success or the need to resend. Each successive transmission of data requires a response to the previous transmission before a new one can be initiated.

T
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Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System (TACACS)
A remote authentication protocol that is used to communicate with an authentication server commonly used in UNIX networks. TACACS allows a remote access server to communicate with an authentication server in order to determine if the user has access to the network.

V
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VPN - 3DES
168-bit Triple DES

VPN - AES
The Advanced Encryption Standard supports key lengths of 128, 192, 256 bits.

VPN - DES
56-bit DES-CBC

VPN - Phase 1 Basic
first, to establish the tunnel (the IKE SA)

VPN - Phase 2 Basic
To govern traffic within the tunnel (the IPsec SA).

VPN - rsa-sig
A digital certificate with keys generated by the RSA signatures algorithm. Specifies the authentication method the adaptive security appliance uses to establish the identity of each IPsec peer.

VPN - Security Association (SA)


W
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Wireless - 802.1x
802.1X uses an existing protocol, the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP, RFC 2284), that works on Ethernet, Token Ring, or wireless LANs, for message exchange during the authentication process. The 802.1X standard is designed to enhance the security of wireless local area networks (WLANs) that follow the IEEE 802.11 standard. 802.1X provides an authentication framework for wireless LANs, allowing a user to be authenticated by a central authority. The actual algorithm that is used to determine whether a user is authentic is left open and multiple algorithms are possible. In a wireless LAN with 802.1X, a user (known as the supplicant) requests access to an access point (known as the authenticator). The access point forces the user (actually, the user's client software) into an unauthorized state that allows the client to send only an EAP start message. The access point returns an EAP message requesting the user's identity. The client returns the identity, which is then forwarded by the access point to the authentication server, which uses an algorithm to authenticate the user and then returns an accept or reject message back to the access point. Assuming an accept was received, the access point changes the client's state to authorized and normal traffic can now take place.

Wireless - AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
The standard comprises three block ciphers, AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256, adopted from a larger collection originally published as Rijndael. Each AES cipher has a 128-bit block size, with key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bits, respectively. The AES ciphers have been analyzed extensively and are now used worldwide, as was the case with its predecessor,[3] the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits, whereas Rijndael can be specified with block and key sizes in any multiple of 32 bits, with a minimum of 128 bits and a maximum of 256 bits.

Wireless - CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)
Is an IEEE 802.11i encryption protocol created to replace both TKIP, the mandatory protocol in WPA, and WEP, the earlier, insecure protocol.[1] CCMP is a mandatory part of the WPA2 standard, an optional part of the WPA standard, and a required option for Robust Security Network (RSN) Compliant networks. CCMP is also used in the ITU-T G.hn home and business networking standard. CCMP, part of the 802.11i standard, uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. Unlike in TKIP, key management and message integrity is handled by a single component built around AES using a 128-bit key, a 128-bit block, and 10 rounds of encoding per the FIPS 197 standard.

Wireless - EAP
a protocol for wireless networks that expands on authentication methods used by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), a protocol often used when connecting a computer to the Internet. EAP can support multiple authentication mechanisms, such as token cards, smart cards, certificates, one-time passwords, and public key encryption authentication. Here's how it works: in communications using EAP, a user requests connection to a wireless network through an access point (a station that transmits and receives data, sometimes known as a transceiver). The access point requests identification (ID) data from the user and transmits that data to an authentication server. The authentication server asks the access point for proof of the validity of the ID. After the access point obtains that verification from the user and sends it back to the authentication server, the user is connected to the network as requested.

Wireless - EAP-TLS
IETF open standard, and is well-supported among wireless vendors. The security of the TLS protocol is strong, provided the user understands potential warnings about false credentials. It uses PKI to secure communication to a RADIUS authentication server or another type of authentication server. So even though EAP-TLS provides excellent security, the overhead of client-side certificates may be its Achilles' heel.

Wireless - LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. LEAP is designed to provide more secure authentication for 802.11 WLANs (wireless local area networks) that support 802.1X port access control.

Wireless - PEAP
(Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. PEAP is designed to provide more secure authentication for 802.11 WLANs (wireless local area networks) that support 802.1X port access control. PEAP authenticates the server with a public key certificate and carries the authentication in a secure Transport Layer Security (TLS) session, over which the WLAN user, WLAN stations and the authentication server can authenticate themselves. Each station gets an individual encryption key. When used in conjunction with Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), each key has a finite lifetime.

Wireless - TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol)
TKIP and the related WPA standard, implement three new security features to address security problems encountered in WEP protected networks. First, TKIP implements a key mixing function that combines the secret root key with the initialization vector before passing it to the RC4 initialization. WEP, in comparison, merely concatenated the initialization vector to the root key, and passed this value to the RC4 routine. This permitted the vast majority of the RC4 based WEP related key attacks.[5] Second, WPA implements a sequence counter to protect against replay attacks. Packets received out of order will be rejected by the access point. Finally, TKIP implements a 64-bit message integrity check named MICHAEL.

Wireless - WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
The WPA protocol implements the majority of the IEEE 802.11i standard, and was intended as an intermediate measure to take the place of WEP while 802.11i was prepared. Specifically, the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), was brought into WPA. TKIP could be implemented on pre-WPA wireless network interface cards that began shipping as far back as 1999 through firmware upgrades. Because the changes required fewer modifications on the client than on the wireless access point, most pre-2003 APs could not be upgraded to support WPA with TKIP. Researchers have since discovered a flaw in TKIP that relied on older weaknesses to retrieve the keystream from short packets to use for re-injection and spoofing.

Wireless - WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2)
WPA2 has replaced WPA; WPA2 requires testing and certification by the Wi-Fi Alliance. WPA2 implements the mandatory elements of 802.11i. In particular, it introduces a new AES-based algorithm, CCMP, which is considered fully secure. Certification began in September, 2004; from March 13, 2006, WPA2 certification is mandatory for all new devices to bear the Wi-Fi trademark.